Television is one of the latest inventions of science. The serials of the epics have increased the craving for the television. All the features on the television are useful to various onlookers. The regular features such as the news in Hindi and English, films in Hindi, English and regional languages, sports and games etc. are useful to the people, The businessmen find T. V the best media for advertisement. The Chitrahar is an additional advantage Of entertainment. The educational and vocational features are also the most useful.

The agricultural programme is a boon of the farmers. Excess of everything is bad. TV affects the eyes very much. It wastes the time of students. It provides an occasion to the thieves and robbers to do their jobs.

The serial of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata have added to the popularity of the television. It is popular among all sorts of people. Now with the invention of colour television, it had become more popular.



The invention of electricity has completely changed our world. Some thinkers call the modern period as the age of electricity. Electricity is very useful in our daily life. It has become a part of our existence. Today we cannot live comfortably without it.

The advantages of electricity are many and of various kinds. When we look towards cities, we find that electricity has become a part of our daily life. With the help of electricity air-conditioners, coolers and fans are running, lamps are lighted and electric bells rang.

Besides this, trains are run by it. It means cheap and quick travelling. From an economic point of view, we can save coal and diesel for other purposes and can free ourselves from smoke and coal dust. Electricity is also very useful because telegrams, telephones, heaters, electric bulbs and talkies cannot work without it.

Machines are also run by it. So it has become the driving force of industries. Photography is not possible without it. We cannot imagine human existence without it. In other words, electricity plays an important role in civilization. Thus, electricity is a boon four us, not a curse.



The man has always been charmed by dreams, fantasies, fictions and entertainments. All these come rolled into one package that is cinema. That is the reason that cinema has always been so popular among masses. In modern means, the cinema is the cheapest and popular mean. Film making was invented about 120 years ago. The first real film was produced by French brothers Luniers in 1895.

In India, it came slightly later. Cinemas in earlier days were black and white and silent. Dada Sahab Falke is first Director and Producer of cinema’s movie ‘ALAMARA’ which is only visible not spoken and after ‘King Harishchandra’ which was also visible and spoken. Now Indian Film industries have high growth and became the second place of film making in the world. The cinema has become one of the most popular means of entertainment and knowledge. It is a valuable medium of communication.

It is a way of recording history, translating great books of epics into an audio-visual show and promotion of music, dance and other arts. It enables recording of rare events, studying environment and nature and other fields of knowledge. The movies depict the life culture and tradition Of various countries. They also deal with human relations, moral values, history, geography and science.

The cinema is the mirror of the world. Against all these aspects the movies also have a darker aspect. Quite often they propagate western values, sex, violence, crime and superstitions. Movies also divert the interest of students from studies and sports to gossip, music, dance and fun. Young boys and girls are often seen spending their time imitating their favourite start, at cinema halls, watching television or reading film magazine. Though we cannot deny that cinema has great educational and recreational value. Really cinema has vitalised country’s civilization, tradition, education and moral values.


Blessing of Science

Shakespeare once wrote, “Nothing is good or bad in the world, but thinking makes it so.” This is also true in the case of science. Science is neither a curse nor a blessing. Everything depends on its use. Prof. C.E.M. Joad has written, “Science has given us power fit for the gods, yet we use them as small children.” We live in the age of science. It has changed the face of our world. Scientific inventions like computers, satellites, X- rays, radium, plastic surgery, cellular phones, photography and machines have proved to be very useful.

They have given many comforts, ease and convenience. These are due to the hard and continuous work of the scientists. We are indebted to them. There is no sphere of life where science has not helped us. Electricity is one of the invaluable gifts of science. It has been proved to be a boon in the modern world. It has saved us from unnecessary toil. It gives us light. It keeps our rooms warm. It moves our fans. It boils water for us. A crane lifts up heavyweight easily with the help of electricity.

Machines are our extra limbs. They weave clothes for us. Production of goods is quick and cheap. We can fly like birds. We can cross the sea like fish. Computers and calculators do the work of accountant and clerks. Guns and firearms save our lives in danger. Radio and Television sing for us.

In the medical field, new drugs have been invented. They have become popular and useful. Sometimes a single dose of a drug ends our pain. A weeping child begins to smile. Thus, we see that science serves us as a good servant. But there is also a dark side of the picture.

Machines are very useful but they are the main cause of unemployment. Many people lose their jobs and become unemployed. This is why Gandhiji was against the unnecessary use of machines. The proper use of scientific inventions is really a boon, while its wrong use is a curse. This is why Prof. Hardy wrote, “Science is an angel in peace but the devil in war.”


An Aeroplane

An aeroplane is a flying machine. It flies over our heads like a bird. It took many years of labour to invent the aeroplane. Seeing birds fly in the air the man felt a desire to fly. Several attempts were made here and there to fly in the sky. Many people lost their lives in the attempt.

The aeroplane was at last invented by the American brothers Oliver Wright and Wilbur Wright. Balloons were first invented for flying in the air. But they were found inconvenient. Various other experiments were made. Aeroplane in its present shape evolved only in the twentieth century. The aeroplane as it is today has engines and two wings. It makes a tremendous noise when it flies.

The aeroplane does not fly into the air all at once. First of all, it moves forward on the ground for a little distance and then rises gradually into the air. The place where the Aeroplane stands is known as the landing ground or the Aerodrome. The aeroplane is a great triumph of science. It shows that man can work wonders by dint of his keen intellect.

An aeroplane can travel thousands of km in a very short time. It carries passengers and their luggage to another place from one place. In our country, the aeroplane is very popular. The main cities of India belong to the airport.



A computer is an electronic device for storing and analysing information fed into it, for calculating, or for controlling machinery automatically. It is a marvellous invention of our times. This machine can do a variety of wonderful and complicated calculations in no time, rather instantly. The computer stores an ocean of information on magnetic tapes. It analyses the information and gives results as and when required. It has enabled us to overcome many complications of multiple calculations, record keeping and processing of scientific data. It works with great speed and exactness. The U.S.A. was the first country to make the first automatic computer in 1937. The work of up-gradation of computers has been taking place ever since its invention. As a result, we are getting more complicated and faster computers now. They are smaller, lighter and more powerful than the previous ones. The note-book sized pocket computers are a common thing now. The hardware engineers and programmers are engaged now in the task of making new types of computers. They have the provision to communicate with other computers using radio waves.

The pentop’ or ‘planitop’ computers are showing a more radical effect than the personal computer used as a deskbound replacement for the manual typewriter. The personal computer has now become a consumer appliance. The new machine is both light and portable. It has become a matter of routine to make use of the computer.

Computerisation in factories and offices has made complicated and technological operations and their related problems easy to solve. Their use has proved very beneficial in terms of costs, time and energy. They have become a necessity. Computers are being used now in banks, airlines, defence services, factories, business organisations, railways and most other government offices. The computer industry in India has a very bright future because India is computerising very fast. Computers are going to stay here forever. As a result, many computer producing companies have come into existence in India.

The Indian companies are exporting the indigenously produced computer to various countries of the world. This industry is showing remarkable achievements on the export front. The computers have recently been introduced in educational institutions also. Computers have increased the capacity of the human working manifold. They are providing satisfactory results in various fields of life.

The computers are rendering help to the radars, missiles and rocket launching, automatic flights etc. They can compute and calculate high amounts of income and expenses within no time. A computer network can be used to coordinate activities at different places. Airlines and railways are now offering instant information on bookings with the help of computers. In a nutshell, the versatility of computers is tremendous. Today, all the advanced countries use computers to solve their climatic, industrial, commercial, financial and other complicated problems. Even the traffic in Capital cities is controlled and regulated with the help of computers.

Computers are not proving a whole blessing. A computer can replace scores of people, In this way, it has added to the problems of unemployment. The computers also make mistakes which are really blunders. They are riskier than the mistakes made by men, The computers sometimes become a victim of its own virus, The over-dependence on the computer would make men mentally weak. Moreover, computers would never supersede human mind, It would and should remain only a machine, Being a product of the human mind, it can never usurp the place and position of the human brain. It rather depends on human consciousness for its operation. It cannot be as self-determining as a man. It can never attain the creativity and thinking of the human mind.

Though computers have many shortcomings yet their advantages far outweigh their disadvantages.

Awareness of Internet Usage

The Internet is an amazing resource that offers children like us unlimited opportunities for learning, constructive entertainment and personal growth. Any child who is old enough to select a letter on a keyboard can access the world. The world of computers, cellphones, gaming systems and the Internet are constantly expanding and changing classroom exercises and take-home assessments tasks, where students are required to compose website content, are ideal for alerting students to the requirements of writing for different audiences.

Internet is a useful tool for developing skills. Internet risks can be effectively managed through education and parental attention. The World Wide Web can be a wonderful tool to access endless information or to email friends and family across the world. Computer ethics is a set of moral principles that govern the usage of computers. We should be honest, respect the rights and property of others on the Internet.

Internet must be used for communication with family and friends. Avoid chatting with strangers and forwarding emails from unknown people. Internet is used to listen and learn about music, it is also used to watch videos and play games. Parental involvement is essential when a child is using the Internet in order to make him follow the rules. Internet is a great tool where we can gather information which can be used for learning. Students should gain knowledge from the Internet and use it wisely.


Almost every family now owns a radio set. You can listen to film music, light music, classical music and news at any time of the day. Broadcasting has made great strides since independence. We have a network of broadcasting stations all over the country. The Vividh Bharti programme has become very popular during the last many years.

Broadcasting combines recreation with education. It is the most popular form of entertainment. Film music is relayed at the listener’s request. Most of the people enjoy film music. There is a special programme for the Jawans. Once in a week, some renowned film personality relays the programme for the Jawans. The programme has become very popular.

The educative value of broadcasting in India is greater than the entertainment value. The Indian masses are illiterate and do not read books and magazines. They are taught History, Geography and Civics on the radio. There are special programmes for the villagers. All the villagers listen to these programmes with attention. They come to know what is happening in the world.

They hear interesting talks and discussions on the radio. The farmers are told about the latest methods of farming and officials of the agriculture department guide the farmers on the radio. Radio sets have been given to the village panchayats. All the villagers sit in the ‘Chaupal’ in the evening and listen to the radio. The farmers also listen to the latest market rates. There are special broadcasts for school and colleges. Important talks are broadcast for the benefit of the students.

The radio helps the students in improving their pronunciation. There are separate programmes for women and children. There are special talks on cooking, knitting and sanitation. These talks have a great educative value. The news is broadcast many times a day from all the stations. Special news bulletins are broadcast during the war. News broadcast is very useful for the villagers who cannot get the newspapers. Now the advertisements are also broadcast on the radio.


Science and our Health

Progress in science and food technology has really made man’s life easy and comfortable. It is heartening to note that we have now increased life expectancy. This is because of the tremendous progress in medical science. Continuous use of drugs has some side effects. Man is not at peace with himself. The quality of life has virtually gone downwards. Every sensible man is suffering. Excess of stress results in a nervous breakdown. We cannot forget the side-effects of wonderful medicines.

When people are thirsty, they quench their thirst by taking the sharbat on popular fruit juices. They think that it will make them feel cooler as well. But they do not know that the sweet Mosombi juice or grey-green sugarcane juice is simply a medium of contracting dysentery, typhoid or jaundice. The machine juicing the ‘Mosambi’ is unclean because generally fly is exposed.

The sugarcane sticks have been kept floating overnight in dirty water in order to increase their yield. This certainly causes different diseases. Some people particularly the school children like the ice-creams made of cheap materials near the school campus. These ice-creams are made of dirty ice, skimmed milk powder, flour and harmful colouring. So these cause cancer, g/ brain tumours and damage to the lever.

In summer some t’ cheaters make their own links into the bottles of standard companies. These drinks are highly unhygienic. As a result, these cause typhoid and dysentery. The best way and the safest way is to avoid such drinks or ice-creams or juice from roadside vendors. One must drink only safe and recognized brands. The safest way is to carry plain water from home. Today’s life is full of stress, tension, pressures and worries. The atmosphere of competition, hurried life, the uncertainty of future prospects, doubt about success, possibilities of etc. cause stress on the human mind.

What we eat and how we live are major factors for making us weak and diseases prone. Adulteration, impurities and irregularity in taking food, bad habits really make us weak and disease-prone. Air, water and sound pollution is a quick road to disease. We must have a walk in nature and breathe in clean and fresh air for good health.


 ISRO: Its Achievements

Indian Space Research Organisation was formed in the year 1969. Vikram Sarabhai, having identified the role and importance of space technology in a Nation’s development, provided ISRO with the necessary direction to function as an agent of development. ISRO provided the Nation space-based services and to develop the technologies to achieve the same independently. ISRO maintains one of the largest fleet of communication satellites (INSAT) and remote sensing (IRS) satellites.

ISRO develops and delivers application-specific satellite products and tools to the Nation. The major achievement of ISRO is the successful development of indigenous cryogenic engine, The Mangalyaan entered the Red Planet’s orbit on 24 September 2014, after a 666 million km journey from Earth in over 10 months, ISRO successfully launched a navigation satellite using the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) from Sriharikota on 28 March 2015. On 11 July 2015 Indian scientists successfully launched five British satellites into the orbit from Sriharikota.

On 28 April 2016 ISRO’s polar satellite launch vehicle successfully launched 1425 kg IRNSS-IG, the seventh satellite in the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System from Satish Dhawan Space Centre.