The Problem Of Unemployment in India
The problem of unemployment is not confined to India alone. Rather it is a global problem. This serious problem has been chronic in India with many dimensions. There is a lack of employment opportunities for millions of young men and women, The number of job seekers goes on increasing day after day and the job opportunities created for them fail to keep pace with them. The major causes behind this problem are—faulty and outdated education system, which is not job-oriented, population explosion; neglect of rural crafts and cottage industries and defective planning.
The problem of unemployment causes frustration, indiscipline, unrest and lawlessness among the job seekers. A hungry man is an angry man. A frustrated person never likes others to live in peace and happiness. The frustrated unemployed youth harness their energies for extremist and terrorist activities. Our education system should be Changed according to our present needs. Our country needs more craftsmen and skilled workers and fewer clerks and assistants. Our colleges and universities produce a rich crop of graduates. Unemployment is more widespread among Arts graduates who are fit only for clerical jobs.
They find it difficult to stand on their own legs and depend solely on the government for a job. They are unable to start their own factories, workshops or business in the absence of money and technical know-how. The education sought by them loses its relevance. Our educational planning has miserably failed because of miscalculations. As a result, there are thousands of hands for which there are no meaningful jobs. On the other hand, there are jobs for which we do not have a sufficient number of proper hands.
This has caused dangerous gaps and holes in our planning. Often the graduates of various disciplines are compelled to settle down for the jobs quite different to their training, education, and taste. The rapid growth in our population is another major cause of unemployment or underemployment. The job opportunities which are created in our country fail to keep pace with our rapidly increasing population. The rate of our economic growth is not adequate to meet our employment requirements. Lack of proper and sufficient vocational guidance facilities also aggravate the unemployment problem which is already unmanageable. It is a pity that highly skilled doctors, scientists, and engineers in large numbers are sitting idle because there is no fairness in recruitment and other considerations overpower merit.
The government should introduce more and more educational measures to make it job-oriented. Some sort of job experience should be given to the students at the secondary and senior secondary stages. It would enable them to adopt some craft as occupation, Banks should be instructed to grant loans to trained and educated young boys and girls so that they may set up their own enterprises. More technical institutions like engineering colleges, polytechnics and ITI’s should be opened. Part-time training in various trades and crafts should also be given there to the already employed persons. It would update and increase their qualifications in their respective field of work.
There should be a check on the growth of population, The industrial and economic resources of the country should be better managed and employed, The cottage industries should be exploited to the maximum to provide jobs to lakhs of our rural population. This would also solve the problem of agricultural seasonal unemployment of farm laborers. The ‘right to work’ should be made the fundamental right of the citizens. Unemployment pension should be given to the really unemployed people because they also need food and clothing.
Our planning should be such as to increase the quantum of employment for both rural and urban unemployed. The condition of unemployment can be improved considerably only if the factors which are at the root of unemployment are sincerely checked and controlled.
ROLE OF BANKS IN SOLVING UNEMPLOYMENT
The problem of unemployment has been assuming gigantic proportions both in the urban and rural areas. There is a lack of employment opportunities for millions of young men and women. The job opportunities being created have not kept pace with the ever-increasing number of job seekers. There is also the problem of under-employment. The problem is a great challenge to our leaders and planners. Neglect of cottage industries and defective long-and-short term planning have worsened the problem of unemployment. Large scale unemployment has affected every section of the community in India. It is posing a very serious threat to the process of development and political stability in our country.
Agriculture can absorb only 60 percent of unemployed people. The remaining 40 percent of people need gainful employment. The commercial banks can play a crucial role in mitigating the intensity of unemployment particularly among the educated people of the country. Banks can encourage self-employment through many purposeful plans. The public sector banks can finance the schemes aimed at generating additional employment for farmers in the rural areas and self-employed persons and small entrepreneurs in the urban areas. The skilled persons who are unemployed should be provided loans to set up their small scale industries or workshops. This would provide them the means of earning their livelihood and supporting their families.
The credit policy needs to be fully geared to remove the scourge of unemployment. The nationalized banks can create employment through their branches by launching special credit schemes. They should provide banking facilities in unbanked and underbanked areas. There has been a rapid expansion in banking facilities with the encouraging increase in the number of commercial banks since the nationalization of banks. Nevertheless much more still remains to be done in order to cover the semi-urban centers and unbanked rural areas. The banks can give a real boost to self-employment on a mass scale by granting liberal loans to the unemployed. It would tone up their efficiency and strive for the optimum utilization of their manpower.
The banks should see that only the genuine persons avail themselves of the credit facility. The branch expansion of banks and their liberal credit policies should also aim at rehabilitating only the unemployed people, It is a pity that some opportunities and influential persons manage to get (grab) loans and the really needy persons are bereft of deriving benefit from the scheme. Nepotism plays a key role and the unemployed persons are doomed to remain unemployed. The bank executives should work with foresight, Courage, and conviction to solve the gravest problem (of unemployment) of the Indian economy. The rate of interest should be nominal. Moreover, the banks should adopt a liberal and flexible attitude towards the mode and terms of repayment. The bank agents should use their discretion in the employment-oriented credit policy for the purpose of granting loans. The branches of the banks should also be supported by other agencies like financial institutions; various corporations engaged in developmental work and Central and State Governments. Adequate emphasis must be given to the backward and forward linkages to get the desired impact on employment generation. Only honest and talented banking staff can help the economy through improving opportunities for self-employment by helping the deserving and luckless persons. Banks should be made by leaders in each Community Development Block to solve the problem of unemployment by encouraging self- employment.
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POPULATION PROBLEM IN INDIA
India is a big country and is, therefore, fraught with many serious problems like unemployment problem, the problem of rising prices and corruption in all spheres. The problem of overpopulation surmounts all the other problems. It rather generates and other problems. The serious problems of baby- boom are becoming more and more alarming day by day. The phenomenal increase in India’s population outpaces all our development and technological gains. It has also nullified most of our achievements in the fields of industrialization and employment generation, As a result, there is no check on an increase in illiteracy, poverty, unemployment, and frustration.
Millions of citizens in India are living under the line of poverty and even the bare basic necessities of life are being denied to them. The specter of starvation has been staring at the masses in the faces. Early marriage, the decline in the rate of mortality, illiteracy, great fertility in Indian women and lack of proper education in family planning, etc, are some of the major and strong causes Of the population problem. The society is also responsible for this problem. Even on the wedding day, everybody blesses the bride to become a mother at the earliest and God finds it difficult to reject the voice and wishes Of the people. Moreover, the women are labeled as barren if the child-birth is -delayed and her very sight is considered ominous.
Though child marriage has been banned by law yet it is practiced freely and fearlessly. The tropical climate of our country is such that even a teenage girl gets mature enough to deliver a child if married. Children are considered as the highest blessings and divine gifts. The ignorant and superstitious persons refuse to adopt the measures of family planning. Even the slum dwellers are totally unaware of the evil consequences of an unplanned and unwieldy (large) family. India’s population is increasing in geometrical progression. On the contrary, the resources of subsistence are increasing in arithmetical progression.
Our growth of the population at a rate of 2 percent per annum is really horripilating. Forty-five children take birth every minute in India. We are having a population of about 1000 million already. The modern facilities in medicine surgery and health care have caused longevity and a decline in the rate of mortality. It has further aggravated our population problem. As per estimates of the demographers, our country would become the most populous country in the world within a few decades. The baby-boom in India would further the problems of housing, clothing, and food which are the basic necessities of life.
This would also reduce the quality of life and family welfare. On account of their illiteracy and ignorance, the people in rural India do not use the means of contraceptives and family planning. The government should take immediate and stern measures to grapple with the menace of overpopulation. Adequate funds should be allocated for birth control programs, mother and child care, and family welfare. Monetary incentives should be given to those young couples who avail themselves of the sterilization facilities without producing any child. Child marriages should be dealt with a heavy hand. Mass propaganda should be launched through radio, T. V. and the press. The masses should be properly educated about the advantages of family planning and birth control. Abortions should be legalized to curb the menace of growth in population.
Corruption in India is a consequence of the nexus between Bureaucracy, Politics, and Criminals. India is no longer considered a soft state. It has now become a consideration state where everything can be had for a consideration. Today, the number of ministers with an honest image can be counted on fingers. At one time, a bribe was paid for getting wrong things done but now a bribe is paid for getting the right things done at the right time. Indian administration is trained with scandals.
India is among 55 of the 106 countries where corruption is rampant, according to the corruption perception index 2004 report released by Transparency International India. Corruption in India leads to promotion, not prison, corruption in India has wings, not wheels. As the nation grows, the corrupts also grow to invent new methods of cheating the government and public. Election time is a time when corruption is at its peak level. Big industrialists fund politicians to meet the high cost of election and ultimately to seek personal forever. Bribing to politicians buys influence and bribery by politicians buys votes. In order to get elected politicians to bribe poor illiterate people, who are slogging for two times at meal.
Is it possible 10 contain corruption in our society? Corruption is cancer, which every Indian must strive to cure. Many new leaders, when coming into power, declare their determination to eradicate corruption but soon they themselves become corrupt and start amassing huge wealth. There are many myths about corruption, which have to be exploded if we really want to combat it. Some of these myths are: Corruption is a way of life and nothing can be done about it. Only people from underdeveloped or developing countries are prone to corruption. We will have to guard against all these crude fallacies while planning measures to fight corruption. The 2G scam is the latest to hog the limelight.
The issue came to light after the auction of airwaves for 3G services which amounted to 67,719 crores to the exchequer. The scam involves high profile industrialist Mr. A Raja the Union Minister of IT is the main accused of this scam. Ms. Kanimozhi is the co-accused.
The commonwealth game is another latest high profile scam. Mr. Suresh Kalmadi, the main accused was sent behind bars. Somehow the commonwealth games were held, but after that came to light all the details about the money laundering that happened during the award of the contracts. Corruption is an intractable problem. It may not be possible to root out corruption completely at all levels but it is possible to contain it within tolerable limits. Honest and dedicated persons in public life control over elected expenses could be the most important prescription to combat corruption. Corruption has a corrosive impact on our economy. Corruption is a global problem that all countries of the world have to confront, however, can only be homegrown. The time has now come to root it out from to root.
WHAT CAN WE DO ABOUT CORRUPTION
Corruption is the hand-maid of democracy’ is a well-known saying. The leaders, who fight elections spend a huge amount of money to get the support of a large number of people. On getting elected, they spare no pains in amassing money for contesting the ne5t election by showing favors to their supporters. In this way, the corrupt practices become the way of life. It degenerates society and endangers political stability. Indian society has become corrupt from top to bottom. The roots of corruption are very deep and firm.
The electoral system is the single largest cause of political corruption in India. The candidates have to spend lakhs of rupees during elections. They raise the money from the businessmen. The businessmen who give money to the candidate for contesting election expect to be rewarded manifold when their candidate wins. this practice germinates corruption. The businessmen are very tactful. They raise the prices of the commodities according to their sweet will. They hoard the essential goods at the times of festivals and functions and sell them in the black market at double the rates. They adulterate even the cereals, medicines, oils and milk products. The persons in authority are puppets in their hands. They are their hired servants who dare not go against their wishes. They rather defend the offenders. All the ‘jobs are sold at high rates.
The job seekers, have to pay a huge amount of money as a bribe before getting a job. This gives them the verbal license to earn through foul practices. A person who is caught red-handed, accepting a bribe is released honorably when he offers a bribe to those who have caught him. The honest police officials who do not accept bribes are posted at odd places. Nobody gives them regard or respect. Disciplinary action is taken against them. They are demoted, suspended, dismissed or transferred without the right of appeal to the court of law. Dozens of senior politicians found guilty of corruption by the commission of inquiry are neither hauled up nor convicted by courts. Rather they can be seen adorning ministerial chairs. One who is found guilty is re-elected. The indicted one enjoy political eminence, Even if the court passes strictures against some politicians, they maintain their high rank in the political party with immunity. Nobody lags behind in earning money by foul means. The nightwatchman share the booty with the thieves.
The crime branch perpetrates crime and the department of Income tax is to increase the income of its employees; A chowkidar of a government building earns thousands of rupees every night by providing the rooms to corrupt persons at night. The government buildings serve as gambling dens and brothels. Even a peon does not move the file from one table to the next without accepting hush-money. The officers show their reluctance in signing the papers without receiving money. Packets of sweets and bundles of notes are sent to the Judges on the eve of the festivals. Corruption is the order of the day in court offices and ministries. Licenses and recognitions are granted against illegal payment.
Even the electric connections are bought in black. The persons who ins al the meters or bring money 01Xjets, parcels and telegrams not only desire but demand their shares. Money makes the mare go but lack of money makes the mayor wait. The civil servants and military officers have also become degenerated. Even the heads of panchayats earn a fortune during their tenure. The public servants who control commercial activities become corrupt. The officers seek bribe from their subordinates and condone their illegal activities. Our nation will be doomed if corruption is not brought to the limelight and given a fatal stroke.
Our country is faced with money problems. One of the big problems is that of rising prices. It is almost impossible to buy any commodity a few months later at its present price, The most affected are the salaried class who get a fixed amount. Their expenditure plan meets a set back when they find that the prices of the commodities are going beyond their budget. The low and the poor class which frames the majority of India’s population find it difficult even to meet their basic requirements.
Only the traders and the businessmen are able to cope with this problem by reaping rich profits from their transactions. There are various factors responsible for this problem. A growing population is one of the biggest problems. Deficit budgeting by our Government results in a high inflation rate. A load of black money in the market enhances the seriousness of the problem. The Government should take serious measures to check this problem. Every possible step should be taken to free the society from corruption and narrow selfish ends.
This is possible when there is a considerable increase in production along with its proper distribution. The commodities should not be boarded in the stores and godowns. This will reduce the artificial want of those commodities. The various taxes should be paid as and when levied and strong measures should be taken against those who evade them by cunning means. By stopping the deficit budgeting the Government can certainly bring down the prices.
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